Seasonal Migraines: Understanding the Triggers and Managing Symptoms

Seasonal migraines often present themselves during specific periods of the year, such as spring or fall. These migraines can disrupt daily life, causing pain, nausea, and other unpleasant symptoms. Understanding what causes these migraines and how to manage symptoms is essential for those who experience them.

Causes and Triggers

Several factors may contribute to seasonal migraines, including changes in weather, environmental factors, and hormonal changes. During the transition from winter to spring, for example, many people experience allergies due to increased pollen levels. This can trigger migraines in those who are already prone to them. Other potential migraine triggers during the spring include changes in humidity and barometric pressure, bright sunlight, and dehydration.

Fall migraines can also be triggered by changes in weather and environmental factors, such as cooler temperatures, shorter days, and increased indoor air pollution. Stressful events, such as the start of a new school year or the holiday season, can also contribute to migraines during this time of year.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Migraine symptoms can vary from person to person, but some common signs include:

  • Throbbing or pulsing pain on one or both sides of the head
  • Sensitivity to light and sound
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness or vertigo
  • Fatigue or weakness

To receive an accurate diagnosis, it’s essential to keep track of symptoms and speak with a healthcare provider. They may recommend diagnostic tests, such as an MRI or CT scan, to rule out other potential causes.

Managing Symptoms

While there is no cure for migraines, several management strategies can reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Changing certain lifestyle habits can help prevent migraines from occurring. These changes include:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet
  • Staying hydrated
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Reducing stress through exercise, meditation or other relaxation techniques
  • Avoiding triggers, such as alcohol, caffeine, and certain foods


Several medications can help manage migraines, including:

  • Over-the-counter pain relief, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen
  • Prescription medications, such as triptans or anti-nausea drugs
  • Preventative medications, such as beta-blockers or antidepressants

It’s essential to speak with a healthcare provider before taking any medication, as some can cause side effects or interact with other medications.

Alternative Therapies

Several alternative therapies may also help manage migraines, including:

  • Acupuncture
  • Massage therapy
  • Chiropractic adjustments
  • Herbal supplements, such as butterbur or feverfew

While these therapies can be effective, it’s essential to speak with a healthcare provider before trying them.

When to Seek Help

While migraines can be uncomfortable and disruptive, they are not typically life-threatening. However, certain symptoms may indicate a more severe underlying condition and require immediate medical attention. These symptoms include:

  • Sudden, severe headache
  • Headache accompanied by a fever or stiff neck
  • Changes in vision or speech
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness

If experiencing any of these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately.


Seasonal migraines can be frustrating and disruptive, but managing symptoms is possible by making certain lifestyle changes, taking medication or trying alternative therapies. If experiencing frequent or severe migraines, speak with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action. With proper management, those who experience migraines can continue to lead healthy, fulfilling lives.


FAQs about Seasonal Migraines

What are seasonal migraines?

Seasonal migraines are migraines that occur during certain times of the year, often triggered by changes in the weather or environmental factors such as pollen or humidity. Some people may experience migraines more frequently during spring or fall, while others may have migraines only during summer or winter.

What are the common triggers for seasonal migraines?

Common triggers for seasonal migraines include changes in barometric pressure, temperature, humidity, and bright sunlight. Environmental factors such as pollen, dust, and air pollution can also trigger migraines during certain seasons. Changes in routine or diet during holidays and vacations can also trigger migraines.

How can seasonal migraines be prevented or managed?

Preventing or managing seasonal migraines involves identifying and avoiding triggers as much as possible. Some strategies include keeping a migraine diary to track triggers and patterns, staying hydrated, getting regular exercise, and managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or yoga. Over-the-counter or prescription medications may also be helpful for preventing or managing migraines. For severe migraines, it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan.


1. Bullen, K., & Tepper, S. J. (2021). Seasonal patterns in headache: A narrative review. Current Opinion in Neurology, 34(3), 293-299.

2. Lastella, M., Lovell, G. P., & Sargent, C. (2019). Acute exposure to evening blue-enriched light impacts on human sleep. Physiology & Behavior, 207, 193-202.

3. Karsan, N., Paley, L., Chen, Y., Ivry, S., Huang, M., & Ho, A. L. (2020). Seasonal migraine characteristics and risk factors in a tertiary headache center: A prospective study. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 60(6), 1226-1233.