What is Rumination Disorder?

Rumination disorder is a relatively rare condition where individuals persistently regurgitate their food after meals or sometimes even hours later. This behaviour may become habitual and is not attributed to any gastrointestinal, motility or structural issues. Often attributed to infants and young children, it may also affect adolescents and adults, presenting itself as a diagnosable disorder.


Rumination disorder symptoms may vary from person to person, but some common symptoms include:

  • Involuntary regurgitation or repetitive spitting out of food
  • Re-chewing, Re-swallowing, or spitting out undigested food
  • Indigestion, bloating or feeling full while eating less amount of food
  • Bad breath
  • Weight loss or poor weight gain

If you or someone you know experiences these symptoms, it is important to seek medical advice.

Causes of Rumination Disorder

The exact cause of rumination disorder is unknown, but some theories suggest that it may be a learned behaviour that develops unconsciously to cope with stressful situations, emotions or anxiety. Apart from that, there are various risk factors involved in rumination disorder, such as:

  • A prior history of eating disorders
  • Mental health conditions, such as anxiety or depression
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
  • High-stress environment or an unstable home life
  • Family or genetic history of gastrointestinal problems
  • Childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma
  • Low self-esteem or poor body image
  • Certain medications or substance abuse

It is important to note that rumination disorder is a medical condition that requires professional intervention.

Treatment Options

The treatment for rumination disorder is determined based on the severity of symptoms, the age of the individual and the underlying cause of the disorder. Treatment options include:

  • Behavioural modifications- including cognitive-behavioural therapy, focusing on learning alternative behaviours and coping mechanisms
  • Medications – targeted at treating associated mental health conditions or gastrointestinal disorders
  • Nutritional therapy- supporting optimal nutrition levels and dietary management with individualised meal plans
  • Support groups – connecting with others with similar experiences can lead to emotional support and better overall mental health
  • Surgery- In extreme cases, surgery may be recommended to prevent food from regurgitating.

Living with Rumination Disorder

Living with rumination disorder can be challenging for individuals and their families as it affects daily routines and quality of life. However, with early intervention and proper treatment, individuals may learn to manage their symptoms and lead healthy lives.

Some tips to help manage rumination disorder include:

  • Eating slowly and swallowing food bit by bit
  • Reducing stress levels and finding healthy coping mechanisms
  • Identifying and avoiding foods that trigger the condition
  • Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing
  • Regular dental checkups to prevent tooth decay


Rumination disorder is a rare condition that can affect individuals of all ages. It is important to seek medical assistance if symptoms persist, to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. With proper medical attention and support, individuals with rumination disorder can learn to manage their symptoms and improve their overall wellbeing.


What are the common symptoms of rumination disorder?

Rumination disorder is associated with persistent regurgitation of food, which is then re-chewed, re-swallowed or spat out. Other symptoms of rumination disorder may include weight loss, bad breath, dental erosion, abdominal pain, and bloating. It is important to seek medical attention if these symptoms persist.

What are the potential causes of rumination disorder?

There are various factors that contribute to the development of rumination disorder, including early childhood neglect, a history of trauma, and certain medical conditions. People who have experienced long-term stress, anxiety or depression may also be at a higher risk of developing rumination disorder. Consult with your healthcare provider if you believe you may be experiencing rumination disorder.

How is rumination disorder treated?

Rumination disorder may be treated with behavioral therapy, medication, and a change in lifestyle. Behavioral therapy may include learning how to retrain the body to stop regurgitating food. Medication may be used to help manage anxiety or depression. It is also important to establish healthy eating habits and work with a healthcare provider to address any underlying medical conditions contributing to rumination disorder. Treatment should be tailored to an individual’s needs and condition.


1. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). Gender differences in depression. Current directions in psychological science, 13(1), 81-84.
2. Kircanski, K., Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Cognitive aspects of depression. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1(5), 685-697.
3. Spasojević, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2002). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 2(2), 247-257.