Menstruation And Mental Health


Menstruation is a natural process in which the body sheds its uterine lining, which occurs approximately every 28 days in most women. While menstruation itself is a normal part of a woman’s biology, it comes with a range of physiological and psychological symptoms that can have a significant impact on mental health. The relationship between menstruation and mental health is complex, and can be influenced by factors such as genetics, hormone levels, and lifestyle. In this article, we will examine the link between menstruation and mental health, and explore ways to promote good mental health during menstruation.

Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)

The week leading up to menstruation can be a difficult time for many women. Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that occur in the days or weeks before a woman’s period. These symptoms can include irritability, mood swings, fatigue, bloating, and headaches. While mild PMS is relatively common and not necessarily a cause for concern, severe PMS can significantly impact a woman’s mental health and daily functioning.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of PMS that affects around 5% of women. PMDD symptoms are similar to those of PMS, but tend to be more severe and can include feelings of sadness, anxiety, depression, and anger. Women with PMDD may also experience physical symptoms such as joint pain and hot flashes. PMDD can have a significant impact on a woman’s daily life, and can make it difficult to maintain relationships or perform at work or school.

Impact of menstruation on mental health

Menstruation can have a number of negative effects on mental health. The hormonal fluctuations that occur during the menstrual cycle can disrupt the delicate balance of neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to mood swings, depression, and anxiety. These symptoms are often worsened in women with PMS or PMDD, who may experience a more severe and prolonged impact on their mental health. The physical symptoms of menstruation, such as bloating and cramps, can also be mentally taxing and lead to decreased energy and motivation.

Managing mental health during menstruation

Fortunately, there are a number of strategies that women can use to manage their mental health during menstruation. These include:

1. Exercise

Regular exercise can help improve mood and alleviate the physical symptoms of menstruation. Exercise has been shown to increase endorphins, which are natural mood boosters, and reduce the levels of stress hormones such as cortisol.

2. Diet

Maintaining a healthy diet that is rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables can provide the body with the nutrients it needs to function properly. Women with PMS or PMDD may benefit from reducing their intake of caffeine, sugar, and salt, as these can worsen symptoms such as anxiety and bloating.

3. Sleep

Getting enough sleep is essential for good mental health. Women who experience insomnia or disrupted sleep patterns during menstruation can try relaxation techniques such as meditation or yoga to promote relaxation and improve sleep quality.

4. Medication

Women with severe PMS or PMDD may benefit from medication to alleviate symptoms. This can include antidepressants, which can help regulate mood, or diuretics, which can help alleviate bloating.

5. Talking to a healthcare provider

Women who are experiencing significant mental health symptoms during menstruation should consider talking to a healthcare provider. A doctor or mental health professional can help identify the underlying causes of these symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.


While menstruation is a natural part of a woman’s biology, it can have a significant impact on mental health. PMS and PMDD can cause mood swings, depression, and anxiety, while the physical symptoms of menstruation can lead to decreased energy and motivation. Fortunately, there are a number of strategies that women can use to promote good mental health during menstruation, including exercise, diet, sleep, medication, and talking to a healthcare provider. By taking a proactive approach to mental health, women can minimize the negative impact of menstruation on their daily lives.


FAQs About Menstruation And Mental Health

1. How do hormonal changes during menstruation affect mental health?

During menstruation, hormonal changes can lead to fluctuations in mood, anxiety, and depression. Hormones like estrogen and progesterone affect neurotransmitters in the brain, which can impact mental health. For some individuals, these changes can be mild, but for others, they can be severe and significantly impact daily life.

2. Can mental health issues worsen during menstruation?

Yes, for some individuals, mental health issues like depression, anxiety, and mood disorders can worsen during menstruation. Hormonal changes during this time can amplify symptoms, making it difficult to manage mental health. It’s essential to track symptoms and seek support from a healthcare professional if mental health issues worsen during menstruation.

3. What are some strategies for managing mental health during menstruation?

Strategies for managing mental health during menstruation may include exercise, meditation, healthy eating habits, and getting enough sleep. Additionally, practicing self-care and seeking support from healthcare professionals can be helpful. It’s essential to track symptoms and communicate with a healthcare professional to tailor a care plan to suit individual needs.


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3. Rapkin, A. J., & Berman, S. M. (2019). The role of inflammation in menstrual-cycle-related mood disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 21(11), 114. doi: 10.1007/s11920-019-1095-5