Understanding the Disorder “Manic Episode”

Introduction

Manic Episode is a mental health disorder that is classified as a type of Bipolar disorder. It is characterized by episodes of extreme mood disorders that alternate between mania and depression with periods of normal mood in between. Manic episodes are periods of abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting for at least a week, during which the patient might become hyperactive, talkative, and experience reduced need for sleep.

Manic Episodes is a serious condition that can interfere with daily life, work or school, and relationships. It is essential to understand the symptoms, causes and treatment options available for Manic Episodes.

Symptoms of Manic Episode

During a manic episode, the patient experiences an intense and prolonged period of elevated or irritable mood. Symptoms of mania are divided into three categories: emotional, behavioural and cognitive.

Emotional Symptoms include:

  • Feeling elated, euphoric or irritable.
  • Feeling restless, agitated or anxious.
  • Feeling confident, ambitious or grandiose.

Behavioural symptoms include:

  • Speaking rapidly or incoherently.
  • Engage in high-risk behaviours like substance abuse, impulsive spending or sexual encounters.
  • Engaging in goal-directed activities like taking on multiple projects without completing any.

Cognitive symptoms include:

  • Difficulty in concentration.
  • Feeling distracted or amused by external stimuli.
  • Having racing thoughts or ideas.

Causes of Manic Episode

Manic Episode is a complex disorder with no definitive cause. However, some possible factors that trigger manic episodes include:

Genetics: Manic Episode is known to run in families, and people with a family history of bipolar disorders have an increased risk of developing Manic Episodes.

Environmental factors: Factors like stressful life events, improper sleep patterns or even a change in season can increase the probability of experiencing a Manic Episode.

Imbalance in Neurotransmitters: Bipolar Disorder is often characterized by an imbalance in neurotransmitters like serotonin or dopamine, which are responsible for regulating mood, motivation, and pleasure. These imbalances in neurotransmitters can lead to Manic Episodes.

Treatment Options for Manic Episode

There’s no cure for Manic Episode. Still, it is essential to explore treatment options to manage its symptoms and improve the quality of life for the patient.

Medications: Mood stabilizers like Lithium, Carbamazepine, or Valproate are generally the preferred medications for treating Manic Episodes. Antipsychotic medications can also be prescribed in combination with mood stabilizers.

Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy can help individuals to identify mood triggers and develop coping mechanisms to deal with the mood changes they might face.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): ECT is a treatment option that involves passing an electric current through the brain for a brief period, which produces a brief seizure that can alter the neurotransmitter levels and provide relief from Manic Episodes symptoms.

Living with Manic Episode

Accepting the diagnosis of Manic Episode can be challenging for the patient and their loved ones. However, it is essential to remember that living with Manic Episode is possible with the right treatment and support.

Here are some strategies that can help individuals manage Manic Episodes:

  • Establish a daily routine
  • Set realistic and achievable goals
  • Avoid alcohol and drugs
  • Stay connected with family, friends or support groups
  • Seek medical help when feeling overwhelmed

Conclusion

Manic Episode is a serious mental health disorder that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Early diagnosis, appropriate medication and psychotherapeutic interventions can help individuals manage and improve their quality of life. It is essential to seek medical help when experiencing mood disturbances to ensure proper care and treatment.

FAQs

FAQs about Manic Episode

What is a manic episode?

A manic episode is a period of intense excitement, energy, euphoria, irritability, or recklessness that lasts for at least one week. During a manic episode, a person may experience grandiosity, racing thoughts, decreased need for sleep, and increased activity levels. This type of episode is mainly associated with bipolar disorder.

What are the symptoms of a manic episode?

The symptoms of a manic episode include rapid speech, impulsivity, distractibility, high self-esteem, engaging in risky behaviors, and feeling more energetic than usual. The person may also experience psychomotor agitation (involuntary movements), insomnia, and decreased appetite.

How is a manic episode treated?

The treatment of a manic episode depends on its severity and the individual’s overall health. Typically, a combination of medication and psychotherapy is used to manage manic symptoms. Medications may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. Psychotherapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy, or group therapy. Additionally, the individual may need to make lifestyle changes such as regulating their sleep and avoiding substances such as drugs and alcohol.


References

1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

2. Johnson, S. L., & Carver, C. S. (2012). Extreme Trait Impulsivity and Maladaptive Behavioral Dysregulation in Bipolar Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(4), 791–797. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026489

3. Vieta, E., Suppes, T., & Mullen, J. (2013). Bipolar disorder and impulse control disorders. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(10), 1131–1141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.05.002