How Stress Affects Children and How to Manage It

Stress is a common experience for both children and adults. While a certain amount of stress can be productive, like the pressure of competition that pushes them to perform better in school, too much or prolonged stress can lead to detrimental physical and mental health consequences, especially in children who are still developing. This article discusses the effects of stress on children and provides some ways on how to deal with it.

What is Stress?

Stress refers to the body’s response to a situation or event that is perceived as a threat or challenge, which triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol that prepare the body for a “fight or flight” response. Stress can be triggered by various factors, including academic pressures, social situations, changes in health or family life, and exposure to traumatic events.

The Effects of Stress on Children

Stress can have different effects on children, depending on their age, personality, and circumstances. The following are some of the common effects of stress on children:

Physical Effects

Stress can affect children’s physical health in various ways, such as:

  • Headaches
  • Stomach aches
  • Difficulty sleeping or nightmares
  • Elevated blood pressure and heart rate
  • Decreased appetite or overeating
  • Frequent infections or illnesses

Emotional Effects

Stress can also have a significant impact on children’s emotional well-being, leading to:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Low self-esteem
  • Feelings of helplessness or hopelessness
  • Aggression or irritability
  • Withdrawal or isolation

Behavioural Effects

Stress can also influence children’s behaviour, causing:

  • Poor academic performance or lack of motivation
  • Difficulty concentrating or organising tasks
  • Increased risk-taking or impulsive behaviour
  • Substance abuse
  • Self-harm or suicidal tendencies

How to Manage Stress in Children

Although stress is a part of life that cannot be entirely avoided, parents and caregivers can help children develop coping skills and strategies to manage their stress effectively. The following are some tips for how to do that:

Create a Healthy Environment

Children thrive in a supportive and predictable environment that fosters their physical and emotional well-being. Here are some ways to create a safe and healthy environment for children:

  • Establish a daily routine that includes rest, play, and healthy meals. Stick to the schedule as much as possible to create predictability and consistency.
  • Encourage outdoor activities and physical exercise to reduce stress hormones and improve mood.
  • Provide a comfortable and soothing sleeping environment that promotes restful sleep.
  • Model healthy behaviours such as eating well, sleeping restfully and taking time to relax.

Encourage Positive Coping Strategies

Children often get stressed when they feel helpless or overwhelmed by challenges. Parents can help by teaching children positive coping skills such as:

  • Mindfulness meditation or deep breathing techniques helps children to regulate their emotions and maintain focus.
  • Physical exercise or play help children to release tension and improve their mood.
  • Journaling or art activities allow children to express their emotions and thoughts freely.
  • Talking with trusted adults or friends can help children to process their feelings and gain perspective on their problems.

Help Children Manage Their Emotions

Emotional regulation is a key skill for children to manage stress effectively. Parents can help children to learn how to recognise and regulate their emotions in the following ways:

  • Encourage children to verbalise their feelings and why they are feeling that way
  • Acknowledge children’s feelings and help them validate
  • Provide space for children to calm down or take a break whenever they feel overwhelmed
  • Teach children problem-solving skills, such as brainstorming solutions and considering potential consequences before making decisions.

Seek Professional Help if Necessary

In some cases, stress may become too severe or prolonged, leading to significant physical or emotional problems that require professional intervention. Parents or caregivers should seek help from a qualified mental health professional if their child exhibits any of the following:

  • Anxiety or depression that persists despite efforts to manage it
  • Difficulty functioning at school or home
  • Sudden changes in mood or behaviour
  • Self-harm or suicidal ideation
  • Inability to cope with loss or trauma


Stress is a part of life that can both motivate and harm children, depending on how it is managed. By providing a safe environment, teaching positive coping skills, helping children manage their emotions, and seeking professional help if necessary, parents and caregivers can help children thrive and overcome the challenges they face.


What are the signs that a child is experiencing stress?

Some common signs that a child is experiencing stress include changes in behaviour, such as becoming withdrawn, being irritable, having difficulty sleeping or recurrent nightmares, eating more/less than usual, or experiencing physical symptoms such as headaches or stomach aches. It is important for parents to keep an eye out for these signs and seek professional help if they persist.

How can parents help their children manage stress?

Parents can help their children manage stress by encouraging them to express their feelings, providing a safe and supportive environment, and setting realistic expectations. Activities such as exercise, mindfulness, meditation, listening to music or engaging in a hobby can also be helpful. Seeking support from a mental health professional may also be necessary in some cases.

What are the long-term effects of childhood stress?

Unmanaged stress in childhood can have long-term effects on mental and physical health. Children who experience chronic stress are more likely to develop anxiety, depression, and other mental health conditions in adulthood. They are also at increased risk for physical health problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Therefore, it is crucial for parents to recognize and manage stress in their children as early as possible.


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