The Art of the Empty Chair Technique

When it comes to therapy or counseling, there are many methods that professionals employ to help their clients work through issues and concerns. One such technique is the empty chair technique, which has roots in gestalt therapy. The term “gestalt” means “whole” or “complete,” and the goal of the approach is to help clients become more aware of their thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as how they relate to the world around them.

What Is the Empty Chair Technique?

The empty chair technique involves having a client imagine an empty chair in the room and then pretend that someone or something is sitting in it. The idea is for the client to “speak” to the imaginary person or object and work through their feelings and thoughts about a particular issue or problem.

For example, if a client is struggling with forgiveness, they might imagine the person they need to forgive sitting in the empty chair. They can then express their anger, sadness, or frustration to the person in the chair, even if the person is not physically present. The therapist can guide the conversation, asking probing questions to help the client work through any emotional blocks or resistance they may have.

The History of the Technique

The empty chair technique is rooted in the work of Fritz Perls, a German psychiatrist who is considered one of the founders of gestalt therapy. Perls believed that dialogue could be a powerful tool in helping clients become more self-aware and that the empty chair technique was an effective way to facilitate that dialogue.

Perls used the technique in a variety of ways, often having clients talk to different parts of themselves or to someone who was no longer present in their lives. He believed that the technique could help clients gain insight into their own motivations and behaviors and ultimately lead to a more integrated sense of self.

How the Technique Works

At its core, the empty chair technique is a form of role-playing. The client is encouraged to take on the role of both themselves and the person in the chair, allowing them to explore their own feelings and responses to the situation. The technique can be used to address a wide range of issues, from relationship problems to trauma to self-esteem issues.

The therapist’s role is to facilitate the conversation and guide the client through the process. They may ask the client to switch roles, taking on the perspective of the person in the chair, and respond to the client’s statements. They may also ask the client to imagine different scenarios or outcomes, encouraging them to think creatively and outside the box.

When the Technique Is Useful

Most therapists agree that the empty chair technique can be useful in a variety of therapeutic situations. Here are a few examples:

3.1 Grief and Loss

If a client is struggling with the loss of a loved one, the empty chair technique can be a powerful way to express feelings of sadness or anger. The client can have a conversation with the imaginary person in the chair, expressing their feelings and working through any unresolved issues or guilt they may feel.

3.2 Relationship Problems

If a client is struggling with a relationship issue, they can use the empty chair technique to have a conversation with their partner or another person involved in the situation. The client can express their feelings and work through any misunderstandings or communication breakdowns that may have occurred.

3.3 Trauma and PTSD

If a client has experienced trauma, the empty chair technique can be a way to work through the aftermath. The client can talk to the imaginary person in the chair, expressing their fear or anger and working through any feelings of guilt or shame that may arise.

The Benefits of the Technique

There are many potential benefits to using the empty chair technique in therapy. Here are a few:

4.1 Increased Self-Awareness

The technique can help clients become more aware of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, allowing them to identify patterns and gain insight into their motivations.

4.2 Improved Communication Skills

The technique can help clients improve their communication skills by allowing them to practice expressing their emotions in a safe, supportive environment.

4.3 Reduced Anxiety and Stress

The technique can help clients reduce feelings of anxiety and stress by allowing them to work through their concerns in a structured, supportive setting.


The empty chair technique is a powerful tool that can be used in many therapeutic situations to help clients work through their concerns and gain insight into their own thoughts and behaviors. With the guidance of a skilled therapist, clients can use the technique to explore their emotional landscape, express their feelings, and find new ways to approach difficult situations.


FAQs About Empty Chair Technique

What is Empty Chair Technique?

The Empty Chair Technique is a psychotherapeutic tool used to help clients overcome unresolved emotional issues. It involves role-playing scenarios with an empty chair representing a person, an emotion or a situation, where the client uses their imagination to express their feelings and resolve inner conflicts.

How does the Empty Chair Technique work?

The Empty Chair Technique works by encouraging clients to externalize their thoughts and emotions and engage in a dialogue with their inner self. By switching their physical and emotional perspectives, clients can gain insight and clarity into their issues, identify unhelpful patterns of behaviour, and develop new coping strategies. This technique can help clients resolve conflicts, deal with grief, manage anger, and enhance their communication skills.

What are the benefits of the Empty Chair Technique?

The Empty Chair Technique can offer several benefits, including improving emotional regulation, enhancing self-awareness, and promoting insight and learning. This technique can help clients to explore their experiences and communicate their feelings more effectively, leading to greater interpersonal relationships, personal growth, and psychological well-being. Additionally, the Empty Chair Technique can be particularly effective for clients who find it difficult to express their emotions verbally, especially children and adolescents.


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