Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric condition that affects around 1-2% of the population. Individuals with BPD experience intense emotions, impaired social relationships, impulsivity, and frequently engage in self-destructive behavior. Living with BPD can be challenging as it can cause significant distress and interference with daily life. In this article, we will explore what BPD is, what causes it, its symptoms, and available treatments for those living with the condition.

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

BPD is a mental health disorder that is characterized by intense and unstable emotions. Individuals with BPD have difficulty regulating their emotions and frequently experience intense, unpleasant emotions such as anger, anxiety or emptiness. BPD is also characterized by unstable and intense relationships with others, impulsivity, and a strong fear of abandonment. These symptoms can cause significant distress and suffering, leading to frequent suicidal ideation, self-injury, and other forms of self-destructive behavior.

What Causes BPD?

The cause of BPD is not well understood. However, research suggests that there may be genetic, environmental, and neurological factors at play. Individuals with a family history of BPD or other mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety disorder, may be more likely to develop BPD. Trauma, such as childhood abuse or neglect, has also been linked to the development of BPD. Brain regions involved in emotion regulation and impulse control may also play a role in the onset of BPD.

BPD Symptoms

Symptoms of BPD can be challenging to live with, both for those experiencing them and those close to them. Here are some of the most common symptoms of BPD:

– Intense and unstable emotions, including anger, anxiety, or sadness
– Impulsive and self-destructive behavior, including substance abuse, binge eating, or engaging in risky sexual behavior
– A strong fear of abandonment and efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
– Unstable self-image, including feelings of worthlessness or emptiness
– Disordered eating patterns and body image concerns
– A history of suicidal ideation or attempts
– Intense and unstable relationships with others, including idolizing or demonizing others, stepping over boundaries, and frequent changes in relationships.

Diagnosis of BPD

Diagnosing BPD can be challenging, as many of its symptoms are also characteristic of other mental health disorders, such as bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. Further, individuals with BPD may be fearful or resistant to seeking treatment, making it difficult to get an accurate diagnosis.

To get a diagnosis of BPD, a mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, will conduct an assessment, which may include an interview, a review of medical records or family history, and psychological testing. The diagnostic criteria for BPD include:

– Experiencing five or more of the following symptoms:
– Fear of abandonment
– Unstable and intense relationships with others
– Rapid changes in self-image or sense of self
– Impulsivity in two or more areas, including substance abuse or reckless driving
– Suicidal thoughts or self-injury
– Intense and fluctuating emotions
– Feelings of emptiness or boredom
– Anger or irritability that is difficult to control
– Transient stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms

BPD Treatment

Although there is no cure for BPD, treatment can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Treatment options for BPD include:


Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, is one of the most effective treatments for BPD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Transference-Focused Psychotherapy are some of the most commonly used forms of psychotherapy for BPD. These therapies aim to provide skills and strategies for regulating emotions, improving relationships, and reducing impulsivity.


Although medication is not generally used as primary treatment for BPD, it may be used in combination with psychotherapy to manage symptoms. Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, or antipsychotic medications may be prescribed to help with specific symptoms, such as depression, anxiety or impulsivity.


In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for individuals experiencing severe, life-threatening symptoms, such as suicidal thoughts or self-injury.

Lifestyle Changes to Manage BPD

In addition to psychotherapy, medication, or hospitalization, individuals with BPD can take steps to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. Here are some lifestyle changes that may be beneficial for individuals with BPD:

– Regular exercise
– Healthy eating habits
– Getting enough sleep
– Avoiding drugs and alcohol
– Practicing mindfulness and relaxation techniques
– Building supportive relationships with friends and family
– Engaging in activities that bring joy or relaxation.

Final Thoughts

BPD is a complex mental health disorder that can cause significant distress and suffering. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage symptoms and achieve a better quality of life. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of BPD, it’s essential to seek professional help from a mental health professional.


What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by difficulties in regulating emotions, unstable self-image and relationships, and impulsive and reckless behavior. People with BPD may experience intense fear of abandonment, have a distorted sense of self, and struggle with mood swings.

What causes Borderline Personality Disorder?

The causes of BPD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that genetics, environmental factors (such as childhood trauma or abuse), and brain chemistry may play a role in its development. It is important to note that the disorder is not caused by a person’s upbringing or personal choices.

How is Borderline Personality Disorder treated?

Treatment for BPD often involves a combination of medications, therapy, and self-help strategies. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a common type of therapy that teaches individuals with BPD how to regulate emotions, manage stress, and improve their relationships. Other types of therapy, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or psychotherapy, may also be effective. Medications such as mood stabilizers or antidepressants may be prescribed to address symptoms of depression, anxiety, or impulsivity.


1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

2. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Guilford Press.

3. Gunderson, J. G. (2011). Borderline personality disorder: A clinical guide (2nd ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.