Avoidant Personality Disorder: Understanding the Disorder and Finding Help


Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) is a mental health condition that affects a person’s ability to connect and communicate with others. It is a type of personality disorder that can lead to significant social and occupational impairment. People with AvPD struggle with feelings of inadequacy, social inhibition, and sensitivity to criticism. The disorder can negatively affect their quality of life, making it difficult to form relationships, pursue education or career goals, and enjoy social activities.

Signs and Symptoms

The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) lists the following criteria for diagnosing AvPD:

  • Consistent avoidance of social interactions and fear of rejection or disapproval
  • Excessive worry and preoccupation with being criticized or ridiculed in social situations
  • Sensitivity to negative evaluation and perceived as being socially inadequate, inferior or unlikable
  • Genuine desire for close relationships but lack of confidence to form them
  • Persistent feelings of being socially inept, inferior, or unappealing
  • Emotional constriction and avoidance of intimate relationships or activities that involve significant social contact

These symptoms manifest early in adulthood and persist throughout a person’s life. The symptoms may cause significant distress and functional impairment in social, academic, and occupational domains.

Causes of Avoidant Personality Disorder

The causes of AvPD are not entirely known, but research suggests that neurobiological, genetic, and environmental factors play a role. Studies have shown that individuals with AvPD have heightened levels of activity in the amygdala, an area of the brain responsible for processing fear and anxiety. Additionally, they may have lower levels of oxytocin, a hormone that regulates social bonding and trust.

Genetic factors may also contribute to AvPD. Research has shown that the disorder runs in families and that individuals with close relatives with AvPD have a higher risk of developing the condition. However, there is still much debate over the extent of the genetic contribution.

Environmental factors, such as childhood trauma, neglect, and rejection, may also play a role in the development of AvPD. Children who grow up in a hostile or abusive environment may develop a fear of social situations and become overly cautious and avoidant.

Treatment and Management Options

Treatment for AvPD often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies:

  1. Psychotherapy: The most effective treatment for AvPD is psychotherapy or talk therapy. A therapist can help an individual with AvPD identify negative thought and behavior patterns and develop coping strategies to overcome them. Techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy can help individuals with AvPD gradually confront their fears and develop more self-confidence in social situations.
  2. Medication: Medication is not a primary therapy for AvPD but may be used to alleviate some of the symptoms. Antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be prescribed to treat depression, anxiety, or other co-occurring mental health conditions.
  3. Self-help strategies: Individuals with AvPD can also learn strategies to manage their symptoms on their own, such as practicing relaxation techniques, building self-esteem through positive affirmations, building social skills through practice, challenging negative self-talk, and joining self-help groups like social anxiety support groups or AvPD support groups. Self-help groups offer a safe and supportive environment where individuals with AvPD can connect with others who share similar experiences and struggles.

Living with AvPD

Living with AvPD can be challenging, but it’s essential to remember that the disorder is treatable. With the right combination of therapies and self-help strategies, individuals with AvPD can manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. It’s important to seek help from a mental health professional who can provide an appropriate diagnosis and individualized treatment plan.

It’s also essential to establish a support system, which may include family, friends, and mental health professionals. A support system can provide emotional support, encouragement, and accountability as the individual works through their treatment plan. Joining a support group can also be an excellent way to connect with others who struggle with similar challenges.


Avoidant Personality Disorder is a lifelong condition that can negatively impact a person’s social, academic, and occupational functioning. However, with the right diagnosis, treatment, and self-help strategies, individuals with AvPD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives. Seeking help from a mental health professional and establishing a support system are crucial steps towards recovery. Remember that AvPD is treatable, and there is hope for a brighter future.


FAQs about Avoidant Personality Disorder

What is Avoidant Personality Disorder?

Avoidant Personality Disorder is a mental health condition characterized by extreme shyness, low self-esteem, and a fear of rejection. People with this disorder often avoid social situations and contact with others, which can make it difficult to form relationships and maintain friendships.

What causes Avoidant Personality Disorder?

The exact cause of Avoidant Personality Disorder is not fully understood. However, it is believed that genetics, early childhood experiences, and environmental factors may all play a role in the development of this condition. Certain personality traits, such as being highly sensitive, may also increase the risk of developing Avoidant Personality Disorder.

Can Avoidant Personality Disorder be treated?

Yes, Avoidant Personality Disorder can be treated. Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, can help individuals with this disorder learn to challenge negative thoughts and behaviors and gain confidence in social situations. Medications, such as antidepressants, may also be helpful in managing symptoms of anxiety and depression that commonly occur in people with Avoidant Personality Disorder.


1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

2. Herpertz, S. C., Sass, H., & Favreau, M. (2000). Impulsivity in personality disorders. Journal of personality disorders, 14(4), 352-368. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2000.14.4.352

3. Kim, J. H. (2013). Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: Overlapping or separate constructs?. Journal of affective disorders, 144(1-2), 157-162. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.06.031