What is Autism?

Autism, or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a developmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior. It is called a “spectrum” because symptoms and severity can vary widely among individuals. Some children with autism have mild symptoms, while others have more severe symptoms that impact their daily functioning.

Symptoms of Autism

The symptoms of autism can vary, but the most common symptoms include difficulty communicating and interacting with others, repetitive behaviors or routines, and problems with social and emotional functioning. Children with autism may also have sensory sensitivities, such as being over or under sensitive to touch, sound, or light.

Some of the specific symptoms of autism include:

  • Difficulty with social interactions, including making eye contact and understanding social cues
  • Delayed language development and difficulty with communication
  • Repetitive behaviors, such as hand flapping or rocking back and forth
  • Fascination with certain topics or objects, and difficulty with changes in routine

Causes of Autism

The exact cause of autism is not known, but most experts believe that it is caused by a combination of factors, including genetics and environmental influences. While there is no single gene or mutation that causes autism, research suggests that certain genes may increase the risk of developing the disorder.

Environmental factors that may contribute to the development of autism include prenatal exposure to certain toxins or viruses, premature birth, and low birth weight.

Diagnosing Autism

Diagnosing autism can be challenging, as the symptoms can vary widely among individuals. A comprehensive evaluation is necessary, including a medical evaluation, developmental screening, and observation of the child’s behavior and communication skills.

The diagnostic criteria for autism include deficits in social communication and interaction, and the presence of repetitive or restrictive behaviors or interests. Symptoms must be present in early childhood, and must impair daily functioning.

Treatment for Autism

There is no known cure for autism, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes for individuals with the disorder. Treatment options may include:

  • Behavioral therapy: This type of therapy focuses on teaching social, communication and daily living skills, as well as reducing disruptive behaviors.
  • Medication: Medications may be helpful in managing symptoms of autism, such as anxiety, depression, or hyperactivity.
  • Parent training and education: Parents can be taught strategies to help manage their child’s behavior and improve communication and social skills.
  • Speech and language therapy: Therapy can help improve communication skills and language development.
  • Occupational therapy: This type of therapy helps individuals with autism develop fine motor skills, such as dressing and feeding themselves.

Living with Autism

Living with autism can be challenging, both for individuals with the disorder and their families. But with the right support, many individuals with autism are able to lead fulfilling lives.

The following tips may be helpful for individuals with autism and their families:

  • Find a support network: Support groups and organizations can provide valuable information and resources for individuals with autism and their families.
  • Encourage communication and social skills: With the help of therapy and education, individuals with autism can improve their communication and social skills.
  • Create a structured routine: A structured routine can help individuals with autism feel more comfortable and less anxious.
  • Foster independence: Individuals with autism can learn to perform daily living skills, such as dressing and feeding themselves, with the help of occupational therapy.
  • Celebrate strengths: Individuals with autism often have unique talents and strengths that should be celebrated.

In Conclusion

Autism is a complex developmental disorder that can impact communication, social interaction, and behavior. While there is no cure, early intervention and treatment can help individuals with autism lead fulfilling lives. With the right support and resources, individuals with autism can thrive and make meaningful contributions to society.


What is Autism?

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person’s social interactions, communication, and behaviour. It typically appears during early childhood and can vary in severity.

What are the common signs of Autism?

The common signs of Autism include difficulty with communication, social interactions, repetitive behaviours or routines, and unusual sensory reactions. Each individual with Autism can have different experiences and challenges.

How is Autism diagnosed?

Autism is typically diagnosed through a combination of behavioural observations and medical evaluations. Doctors may use specific diagnostic tools, such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), to assess a person’s development and behaviour. It is important to have a proper diagnosis to access appropriate support and care.


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2. Lord, C., Elsabbagh, M., Baird, G., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder. The Lancet, 392(10146), 508-520. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31129-2

3. Geschwind, D. H., & State, M. W. (2015). Gene hunting in autism spectrum disorder: on the path to precision medicine. The Lancet Neurology, 14(11), 1109-1120. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00102-6